An introduction to MVVM pattern on Android with the Data Binding Library

In a previous post we made a brief introduction to the MVP architectural pattern, describing how it help us to create a much cleaner, testable and modular source code for our application.

In this post we are going to talk about the MVVM pattern and explain how using the new Android Data Binding Library we can achieve the same level of modularity and separation of concerns but one step ahead, making the data binding with the UI layer less verbose and straightforward, which will produce source code less prone to errors and bugs.


What is MVVM?

Model-View-ViewModel is a variation of the MVC and MVP patterns initially described and implemented by Microsoft to be used on the .NET platform, specifically with WPF and Silverlight technologies that makes use of the XAML language to implement User Interfaces.

In the Microsoft ecosystem one of the main advantages of this pattern is that the designers can implement the View working completely independent of developers using Blend, which is an amazing UI IDE. Then developers can focus only on the ViewModel and Model and wiring everything with the Binding functionality. This in Android is much more difficult as the UI designer tools are not powerful enough.

Screen Shot 2015-12-05 at 10.59.55

Like in the MVP pattern we separate and architect our code in three well defined layers.

The View defines the pure user interface and it has no logic at all except any related only to the UI. If we focus on the Android platform in this layer we would have Activities, Fragments, Dialogs, Views, etc. As we saw in the MVP post these entities will implement an interface that will be use as bridge with the ViewModel layer.

The Model integrates our data strategy, backend support, pojos, and generally speaking what we all know as business logic. These will be implemented via Interactors which defines uses cases of the domain logic.

And finally we have the ViewModel which differentiate this patterns from others. Conceptually this layer is in charge of the same logic as the Presenter in the MVP, which is acting as a facade and brain between our data model and the user interface.

It will be able to identify the application status and display or fetch data and information using the View and the Model. The ViewModel knows how and where to display the information in the user interface. Also it knows where  and how to get this information from the Model.

But the main difference is how this data are passed from the model to the View, which in the VM happen using a mechanism called Data Binding.


What is Data Binding?

Data Binding is a mechanism where a view component is linked to a data entity of the ViewModel without having to implement specific code to transform or assign this data to the visual component. We can send and receive commands and events and also connect data source to the component. In Android this magic happen thanks to the recently added Data Binding Library.

As we can see, one of the main advantages of using Data Binding is the time we save due the amount of code that we don’t have to implement to connect the data and the view and hence the possible bugs and code defects that we will avoid.


Implementing Data Binding on Android

First thing we need to use the Android Plugin for Gradle version 1.5.0-alpha1 or higher.

classpath ''

Then we configure the app to use the data binding feature in the build.grade file.

dataBinding {
enabled = true

Now we need to add the data binding to the component that is going to display the data that we need. For this example we will use two TextView which are going to display a user name and email that we will fetch from a web service using Retrofit. Once we have the response from the server, this info will be automatically updated on the view.

So let’s add the binding code in the layout of our view, in this case we are adding a reference to the pojo class that contains the data that we are binding and that will fill up with the response of our server request. Also we are setting the TextView wit the field of the that contains the specific user name and email:

<layout xmlns:android="" xmlns:tools="" tools:context="com.quoders.apps.androidbootstrap.mvvm.MvvmExampleFragment">

<variable name="commentItem" type=""/>

<TextView android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@{}" android:layout_marginTop="15dp"/>

<TextView android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@{}" android:layout_marginTop="5dp"/>

Next we need to initialise the binding objet in the Activity or Fragment. Note that the FragmentMvvmExampleBinding is created automatically by Android Studio:

FragmentMvvmExampleBinding mBinding = DataBindingUtil.setContentView(getActivity(), R.layout.fragment_mvvm_example);

And finally when we have the response from the HTTP request we do the binding with the pojo that contains the data to bind:


As you can see in this example, the UI component is update on demand when we have the server response data. Although this feature is pretty cool, what makes data binding really powerful is the ability to update the UI component automatically each time that the status of the bind object changes. We accomplish this extending our pojo data class from the BaseObservable class that the Data Binding library provides and setting the fields as observables. In our example it would look  like this:

public class CommentItem extends BaseObservable {

private String name;
private String email;

public String getName() {
return name;

public String getEmail() {
return email;

There are multiple possibilities like binding collections, resources, automatic setters, etc… But all this due its extension will be the topic of another post!

You can find the source code with this example here in the FragmentMvvmExample. To check out how to implement the division of layers on MVP / MVVM have a look to my previous post.

As usual all comments, suggestions or critics are more than welcome, please leave your comments!


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